Saudi Arabia

A brief history of Saudi Arabia

Earliest settlements in Saudi Arabia were along the Gulf coast that had links with the Ubaid culture in Mesopotamia.

Saudi Arabia is the homeland of the beduin tribes. The principal tribes were the Anayzah, Bani Khalid,  Harb, Al Murrah, Mutayr, Qahtan, Shammar, and Utaiba. There were at least another fifteen minor tribes, including the predominantly urbanized Quraysh, an ancient Hijaz tribe of the Prophet Muhammad.

By 1517 CE, the Ottoman Empire dominated area of present day Saudi Arabia.The beginings of a Saudi state started in central Arabia during 1744 CE (AH 1157).  Muhammad bin Saud, joined forces with an Islamic reformer, Muhammad Abd Al-Wahhab to create a new political entity.  By 1765 CE (AH 1179), Muhammad ibn Saud's forces had established Wahhabism and the authority of the Saud family over most of Najd. The Wahhabi movement swept across Arabia and led to conflict with Egypt. The Wahhabis and the Saud family were driven away and retreated to Riyadh in 1824. Subsequently, the Sauds ruled Riyadh and a variable territory around it. In 1890 CE (AH 1308), Muhammad ibn Rashid  seized the control over Riyadh and the Saud family fled to Kuwait. 

 The modern Saudi state was founded by the Abdulaziz bin Abdelrahman Al-Saud (known as  King Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud). In 1902 CE (1320), Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud captured Riyadh from the rival Al-Rashid family. Later Abdul Aziz subdued Al-Hasa and the rest of Nejd by1913 CE (AH 1332) and became Sultan of Nejd. In 1926 CE (AH 1345), he forced the King of Hejaz Hussein ibn Ali abdicate. On January 8, 1926 CE (AH 1345), Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud became the King of Hijaz. On January 29, 1927 (AH 1346), he took the title King of Nejd.  By the Treaty of Jedda (1927CE AH 1346), Abdul Aziz became the King of Hijaz and Nejd. In 1932 CE (AH 1351), name was changed to Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Coin pages:

Kingdom of Hejaz 1915-24

Kingdom of Nejd 1905 - 24

Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd        1926        1928-32

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia          1932-55      1956-59       1960-76        1976-present


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RK. October 28, 2005.