Rupee is the name of Indian coin and currency. It was derived from a Sanskrit language word 'Rupya'. Rupya literally means the 'wrought silver' used as the coins of trade or currency during 500-400 BCE (Before Common Era).
Arabian, Afghan and Turkish invaders of turkish and mongol descent came to India following the collapse of Gupta empire. They slowly established themselves in northern India (600-1500 CE). Out of the later invaders grew Moghul empire (1526-1857). Silver Rupee coin made a standard currency by Sher Shah in 1540 CE. Sher Shah issued gold Mohurs and copper paisas also. Moghul emperors issued some of the most exquisite gold and silver coins minted in India.
Among the european colonial powers that came during the decline of Moghul empire, Portuguese were the first to open a mint in Goa in 1510 and issue coins. In 1775 CE., they adopted the word Rupia for their coins. The English were given permission to open a mint in Bombay in 1717 CE. and the French in 1736 at Arcot. These mints issued Moghul rupees and other coins.
Many small independent princely states emerged as the Moghul empire was collapsing and issued their own coins. The East India Company coins had three distinct periods. Coins from 1613-1717 were minted at the Moghul mints or issued illicit coins. During 1717-65, it gained rights from Moghul empire to mint Moghul rupees at their own mints at Bombay (1717), Madras (1742) and Calcutta (1758).1 In 1765, East India Company acquired administrative powers and divided India into three Presidencies. It issued coins in the name of Moghul emperors. Each Presidency had its coinage of Rupees and Mohurs. British parliament passed an act in 1835 to make the uniform coinage. First uniform coins were minted with British King William IV effigy on the obverse side. Next hundred years, indian coins had an effigy of British Monarch on them.
After independence, British Monarch's effigy on Indian Rupee was replaced by a "Lion capital" from the 'Pillar of Laws' built at Saranath by Mauryan King Ashoka in 250 B.C.E. Paradoxically history of indian coinage starts repeat itself with a Mauryan symbol on it again after 2500 years of its beginnings. India adopted decimal system of 100 Paise per one Rupee in 1957.
Post Gupta Kingdoms (500 - 1000 CE)
Early Muslim Kingdoms (1000 - 1500 CE)
Moghul Empire (1500 - 1837 CE)
Independent Kingdoms (1500 - 1837 CE)
Princely states (1800 - 1947 CE)
Portuguese Enclaves (1510 - 1961 CE)
Danish Enclaves (1620 - 1845 CE)
French Enclaves (1736 - 1792 CE)
British India (1692 - 1947 CE)
Bombay Presidency (1717-1834 CE)
Pagoda Series 1802-34
Rupee Series 1802-34
Uniform Colonial Coinage (1835-1947 CE)
1835-37 1840-60 1860-1901 1901-10 1911-38 1918-21 1938-47
Indian Republic (1947 - Present)
1950-57 1957-63 1964 1965-78 1969 1970 1972 1973
1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981
1982 1984-88 1988-90 1990-92 1992-
1. Money Talks-2, N.N. Pai, 1981. Mangolore, India.
J Gerson Da Cunha., Indo-Portuguese Numismatics, 1880.